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Diabetes Mellitus Types Treatment Signs and Symptoms Diet Plan

Diabetes Mellitus Types Treatment Signs and Symptoms Diet Plan is a global disease. it is rising on the waves of increasing moderateobesity and increasing age in the  developing countries, Diabetes mellitus Disease is a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by
chronic elevation of glucose levels in the blood. Blood glucose level arises because  the Pancreas is unable to produce enough insulin Hormone for its own needs, because of impaired insulin secretion in to blood stream or impaired insulin action or both. Diabetes Mellitus affects in all over worldwide some 300 million people and is on the increase disease incidence. Chronic and long term exposure to high level blood glucose is a leading cause of Visual loss, renal failure, a range of other types of tissue damage. Diabetes also predisposes to hypertension coronary arterial disease and lipid Disorders

History of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Diabetes Mellitus was a disease of the wealthy in ancient period in India Known as Madhumeha (Sweet present in Urine) it was observed by aunts were Attracted to the urine,
  2. The ancient Greek peoples coined the term of “Diabetes Mellitus” meaning excessive Urine elimination with dehydration
  3. Romans described that the urine contained sugar; “diabetes” was considered a kidney’s disease until the 18th century.

Raised glucose levels in the blood were recognised soon afterwards. The modern era discovery of Oskar Minkowski that removal of the pancreas gland resulted in diabetes Mellitus, followed by the discovery of insulin in year of 1921-22.Diabetes Mellitus is a Group of metabolic disorders characterized by increasing blood glucose levels it can resulting from defect or insufficient secretion of insulin or Insufficient action of Insulin Hormone

Types of Diabetes Mellitus

  1. Type I DM,
  2. Type II DM,
  3. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Definition of Type one Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)

Type I Diabetes Mellitus is known as a Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus and Juvenile diabetes mellitus. Pancreases fail to secretion or produce enough beta cells or insulin Hormone

Diabetes mellitus is caused by the destruction of the beta cells in pancreas and when the beta cells are destroyed  the pancreas gland  unable to produce insulin hormone at all

Definition of Type two Diabetes Mellitus

Type II Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM) is known as Non Insulin Dependent Diabetes mellitus beta cells produce insufficient Insulin hormone

Definition of Gestational Diabetes Disease

Gestational Diabetes Disease was Less Insulin hormone Production during the pregnancy by the Antenatal Mother. This type of diabetes recovers after pregnancy, but Mothers are at risk for developing type -II diabetes mellitus later in life Span.

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Type I Diabetes Mellitus Type II Diabetes Mellitus Gestational Diabetes
Polyphagia

( increased appetite)

Polyphagia

( increased appetite)

Polyphagia

( increased appetite)

Polydipsia

( increased thirsty)

Polydipsia

( increased thirsty)

Polydipsia

( increased thirsty)

Polyurea

(increased urination )

Polyurea

(increased urination

Polyurea

(increased urination

Candida infection, Candida infection, Candida infection,
Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Frequent genital infections

( Balanitis/ vaginitis),

Delay healing process, Blurred vision, Blurred vision,
 Delay wound healing process,  Delay wound healing process,  Delay wound healing process,
 Unexplained Wight loss, Lower  extremities paraesthesia, Lower  extremities paraesthesia,
 Fast  onset because of insulin producing is Nil, Slow onset because of some insulin producing,  Balanitis / vaginitis
Extremely fatigue, Extremely fatigue, Extremely fatigue,

There are different causes and aetiology for diabetes mellitus which are given below

Viral infection to Pancreas Gland

Autoimmune disorders,

Genetically disorders

Hereditary

Obesity,

Long time use of certain drugs i.e, steroid, thaizide diuretics, phonation,,

Severe or recurrent pancreatitis,

Lack of physical activity,

Pancreas carcinoma

Idiopathic

Diagnosis Evaluation for Diabetes Mellitus

FBS – Fasting Blood Sugar

PLBS – Postprandial glucose test

OGT – Oral glucose Tolerance test

RBS – Random blood Glucose

HbA1c Test

Thyroid profile

Diabetic mellitus Pathophysiology

 

 Treatment for Diabetes Mellitus Disease:

Diabetic Medical Management

The main goal of diabetes treatment is to normalise insulin activity

Blood glucose levels to reduce Normal Level

Reduce the development of vascular and neuropathic complications.

Components of management for diabetes:

  • Nutrition,
  • Exercise,
  • Monitoring,
  • Patient education,
  • Insulin therapy

Diabetic Pharmacological management

Rapid acting Insulin

  1. Aspart
  2. Lispro
  3. Glucolize

Short acting Insulin (Regular)

Intermediate acting

(Neutral protamine hegadorn)

Long acting Insulin’s

Luntus,

Levemir
The oral medications are

Sulfonylureas

Meglitinides

Repaglidine

Retformin.

Alpha-glucosidase

Glinides

Insulin secretagogues.

Boguanide

Incretines.

Thiazolidione

Prevention Measures for Diabetis Disease

Individualized hyperglycaemic control

  1. Healthy Diet and lifestyle
  2. Do Exercise regularly
  3. Medication

Treat associated conditions

  1. Dyslipidemia
  2. Hypertension
  3. Obesity
  4. Coronary heart
  5. Disease

Management of Type 2 Diabetes

Maintain a healthy lifestyle habits

Eat balanced and healthy diet

Controlling body weight Do more physical activity i.e. walking and play games

Avoid Soft drink and choose Coconut water, Green tea Less Consume Coffee or tea

Eat Sea products i.e Fish

Eat limited Red Meat

Eat Nuts Spourts

Stop tobacco Consuming

Periodically Health Checkups and Monitor Blood Glucose levels

Take care of Eyes, foots,

Check for Numbness in foots

Check Blood pressure and vitals regularly

Diabetes Mellitus Complications

Hypoglycaemia

Hyperglycaemia,

DM Related Complications

Micro vascular

Eye disease

Macular edema

Diabetic Retinopathy

Macro vascular

Coronary Artery diseases

Peripheral arterial disease

Cerebrovascular disease

Diabetic Neuropathy

Diabetic Nephropathy

Cataracts

Glaucoma

Hearing loss

Cerebrovascular accident

Diabetic ketoacidosis

Erectile dysfunction in Males

Diabetes Mellitus Nursing Interventions

Monitor blood sugar regularly

Control Blood Sugar

Measure body weight regularly

Observe signs and Symptoms of hypoglycaemia

  1. Level of Consciousness
  2. Cold and Moist skin
  3. Rapid pulse
  4. Anxiety
  5. Hunger
  6. Blurred vision

Co- ordination of blood sugar levels with insulin and anti hypoglycaemic agents

Asses for the signs and symptoms of infection

Increased temperature

Flushed appearance

Examine Wound discharges i.e colour, odour,

Urine analysis for Cloudy urine appearance

Nursing Diagnosis for Diabetes Mellitus

Deficient knowledge related to diabetes mellitus self care skills or information.

Anxiety related loss of control, fear of inability to manage diabetes Misinformation related diabetes, fear of diabetes mellitus complications.

Risk for infection related potential sensory loss in feet.

Imbalanced Nutrition Related to increase in stress hormones

Risk for impaired skin integrity related to immobility and lack of sensation.

Potential self care deficit related physical impairments or social factors.

Diabetes Mellitus Nursing care

Keep patient unit and bed sheet dry tidy wrinkle free

Receive patient and Make patient Comfortable position

Check vitals periodically attach Multi Para Monitors for recording Pule Blood pressure  ECG…

Check for physician orders Check for prescribed treatment regimen for correcting hyperglycaemic as indicated.

Monitor laboratory values any abnormal inform to physician

Send for diagnostic evaluations as per prescribed i.e Laboratory tests, Radiological investigations

Maintain asepsis nursing technique during IV line insertion,

Administration of medications,

Check any swelling and redness and change IV sites as indicated.

Give Morning, Evening Care to Patient,

Teach for good hygienic practice i.e. Skin Hand foots

If any wound promote wound healing

Diabetes mellitus Health education

Give Health education about control of Blood sugar levels

Provide psychological emotional support to the patient,

Health education about control of blood sugar in Home

Give education How to treat hypoglycemic reactions

by giving sugar juice, Chocolate candy, honey fruit juice,

Teach about active and passive exercises to control blood sugar

Give information about Self Check signs and symptoms of complication DM effects.

Watch Video fo Diabetc Food

 
Updated: January 26, 2018 — 10:33 pm

1 Comment

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  1. Jennifer's Dietary Advice

    Excellent information about diabetes and its management.I would like to share with you some of my tips on treating diabetes. I would recommend that diabetics should take 50% carbohydrates, 30% fats and 20 % proteins in their daily diet. Protein stabilizes blood sugars all throughout a day, provides amino acids that is used for skeletal muscle fuel and provide a feeling of satiety at meal times. Proteins also help the body rebuild and provide nutrients that are not in carbohydrates and fats. Foods that have a lot protein include meats, cheeses, soy, nuts, beans and lentils. The type of protein that a diabetic would choose does not matter as long as that he or she eat some each day to maintain the benefits that protein brings.

     

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