Blood Transfusion Facts Risks Procedures Side Effects
Definition of Blood transfusion
Blood transfusion is an infusion of one person’s blood or Blood Components (Donor) to another person (Receiver) through blood Vessels i,e. who are needed Blood and Blood components,
Purpose of Blood Transfusion
1) To increase the oxygen carrying capacity in Anemia Conditions in suitable cases.
2) During the major surgery when much blood loss my be possible.
3) To maintain blood pressure and blood volume during hemorrhagic Condition.
4) To replace blood platelets and clotting factors in hemophilia.
5) To provide anti-bodies and leukocytes in severely ill patients.
6) Burns and Scalds,
7) Accidents and Trauma,
8) Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Donor is a person who gives the blood.
Who can Donate Blood
Donor should be an adult between 17 to 45 years old age with 50 kg of weight at least and Hb not below 12.5 gms
Contra Indication of a Donor
- Communicable Diseases i.e, Hepatitis B, Viral Diseases,
Recipient is the person who receives blood.
The standard blood transfusion fluid provides
- Whole blood.
- Concentrated suspension of red blood cells.
- Dried plasma (reconstituted with sterile distlled water)
- Packed cells.
- Fractionated cellular components.
- Substitutes of Plasma. (Dextran 10% which are also referred to as plasma volume expanders).
- Blood can be stored for 20 days at 4 to 6 centigrades in deep freeze.
- Fresh blood is much better as blood platelets disintegrate with in twenty four hours.
- Be sure that it is kept carefully
Types of Blood Groups
Blood must be matched by testing blood groups. Blood Transfusion carried a bog risk without being tested for capability with the blood of a person receiving the blood (recipient) Each person has antibodies in to the blood, which reacts with foreign body proteins in the blood cells of another person causing agglutination or clumping of the red blood cells.
Types of Blood Groups (ABO system)
Those are 4 types
Group’A’. Has A antigen in the red cells and anti ‘B’ bodies in the plasma.
Group “B” Has B antigen in the red cells and anti “A’ Bodies in the plasma.
Group”AB” Has both A& B antigens in red cells but the plasma contains neither anti A or anti B bodies.
Group”O” Has no A or B Antigen in the red cells but has both anti “A: and anti “B” bodies in the Plasma.
Group “A” & “O” commonly found in European countries.
Rhesus Blood Group System
The Rhesus or RH Group was given this name as it was found that the same system of antibodies was present in the blood of the rhesus monkey .
These are two types:
Rhesus Positive or Rh+ve (D+ve)
Rhesus Negative or RH-ve (D-ve)
About 85% of Population is Rh+ve group and and about 15% of population os Rh –Ve group.
Transfusion of Rh +ve blood to a Rh negative individual can be dangerous,
since the Rh Negative blood cell produce antibodies to destroy the transfused cells.
The effect of a first transfusion may be effective slightly, but the individual become sensitive to
the Rhesus D factor and further transfusion with Rh positive blood may produce a serious reaction .
Transfusion of ABO Group Blood
Group”A” receive from “A” Group and “O” group
Group”B” Receive from “B” Group And “O” Group
Group “AB ‘ (Universal recipient ): Receive from “A” “B” “AB” or “O” Group
Group “O” (Universal donor ): Receive from only Group “O”
General Instructions for Blood Transfusion
- Blood should be fresh.
- Correct blood Group and Rh Type must be given to correct patient. Any error in the labeling of blood can lead to serious consequences.
- Blood must be stored at 4 -6 Degree’s Celsius in the refrigerator should not below 4 Degree’s Celsius or heated.
- Avoid shaking the container, if needed blood can be mixed gently and if cells have settled at the bottom.
Equipments needed for Blood Transfusion
- Disposable blood transfusion set(1).
- Canula No 20 (1) for child canula No.23 (1)
- Sterile swabs.
- Antiseptic lotion.
- I/V Stand .
- I/V hanger.
- Adhesive plaster.
- Emergency Medicine tray.
Procedure for Blood Transfusion
- Perform Hand washing Before Procedure,
- Identify the Client with Hospital Registration Number,Name and Diagnosis,
- Ensure informed consent from Patient and Attenders,
- Teach patient what are the event of an adverse Blood transfusion reaction, such as skin rash, rapid breathing, rapid heart rate,chills, vomiting, back pain,
- Check patients vital signs, i.e, Blood Pressure, Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiratory Rate,
- Check for Physician Orders verify the blood component, Clients identity by comparing the laboratory blood records, i.e, Blood Bag unit Number on the blood bag label, The blood ABO group, Rh factor,expire date,
- Inspect for Blood bag appearance of components clots, cloudiness,abnormal color,
- Take the equipments to bed side.
- Prepare the patient.
- Hand wash and wear gloves,
- IV cannula should be inserted in the vein with complete aseptic technique.
- It should be kept in position with Adhesive tape and fully comfortably.
- In small child or in case of difficult patient splint is needed . It should be securely placed with proper bandage.
- Open Blood administration set and clamp roller completely,
- Spike blood component blood bag unit port,
- Infuse blood slowly for fist 15 minutes,
- Regulate the rate of flow from 40-45 drops per minutes or according to the Physician’s order.
- Observe and document client’s condition i.e, Blood Pressures, Temperature, Respiration rate, Pulse rate,
- Keep constant watch on the Patient, inspect the bottle frequently .
- When blood transfusion was completed clamp roller,
- Record on the chart time, amount of blood given and vital signs .
- For Recipient 1) I.V. disposable Set, Arm Splint , I.V stand 2) Warm normal saline in bowl of hot water.
- wash hands and Record and document procedure,
Precaution for Blood Transfusion
Stop Blood if patient gets rigor.
Note: Donor’s blood must be tested for syphilis, malaria and AIDS. Before giving the blood, it must be grouped carefully to make sure that it will not cause clothing with recipient’s blood. It must matcj,
Do not warm the blood before using it as it raises the temperature of the blood and encourage the growth of bacteria.
Do not wash the bottle for several hours after blood has been given, in case it is necessary to recheck blood type.
If any complications of Blood Transfusion
Stop Blood Transfusion,
Replace IV Set (IV Tubing),
Inform Blood Bank,
Risks and Complications of Blood transfusion
1) Raised Pulse.
2) Difficult Breathing.
5) Cardiac and respiratory distress.
All the above signs should be carefully watched for and reported immediately.
6) Renal Failure
7) Pyrenial reaction
11) Air embolism