DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE:
1.Pre – Disaster Management:-
To reduce the potential for human materials or environmental losses caused by hazards and to ensure that these loser are minimized when the disaster actually strikes.
To ensure that the need and provisions of victims are met to alleviate and minimize suffering.
3.Post Disaster Management :-
To archive rapid and durable recovery which does not reproduce the original vulnerable conditions.
1.Disaster event :- this refers to the “real – time” event of a hazard occurring and affecting elements at risk.
The duration of the event will depend on the type of threat ground shaking may only occur for a matter of seconds during an earthquakes while flooding may take place over a longer sustained period.
2.Response and relief :-
It includes setting up control rooms . putting the contingency plan in action , issue warning , action for evaluation , taking people to safe areas, rendering medical aid to the needy . ect.
In this the phases are emergency relief , rehabilitation and reconstruction.
1.EMERGENCY RELIEF :- activities under taken during and immediately following a disaster , which include immediate relief , rescue , damage , needs assessment and debris clearance.
2.REHABILITIES :- it includes the provision of temporary public utilities and housing as interim measures to assist longer teem recovery.
3.Reconstruction :- it includes replacement of buildings , infrashniclire life line facilities.
4.Development :- development and an ongoing process or ongoing activity. Disaster reduction measures like construction of embankments against flooding. Imgation facilities as drought proofing measures , increasing plant cover to reduce the occurrences of landslides , land use planning construction of house capable of withstanding the onslaught of heavy rains/wind speeds and shocks of earthquakes are some of the activities that can be taken up as part of development plans.
5.Prevention and mitigation :-
The term “Preventation” is often used to embrace the wide diversity of measures to protect persons and properly its use is not recommended since it is misleading in its implicit suggestion that natural disasters are preventable.
Mitigation embraces all measures taken to reduce both the effect of the hazard itself and the vulnerable conditions to it in order to reduce the scale of a future disaster.
This brings us to the all important issues of disaster preparedness. It includes the formulation of viable emergency plans the development of warning system, the maintenance of inventories and the training of personnel.