Nursing Staff Duties and Resposibilities
Nursing Staff Duties and Resposibilities
Disaster Management How to React respond and Prepare
The hospital may be alerted by the emergency itself this happens in cases where.
The accident takes place near the hospital or the hospital is informed on the telephone or through a person.
The person in the hospital who receiver’s information about the disaster should gather details regarding causalities. There details include;
The place and time of accident determine the reaction of time of the hospital while the type of causality dictates the type of preparation required by the hospitals.
The designated hospital staff – causality medical officer, hospital controller, hospital administrator and senior specialist should be responsible for activating disaster management plan.
The switch board operators, clues on duty or causality in charge should notify the key personnel, activate emergency departments. Such as radiology department, O.T, blood bank, laboratory, medical stores, dietary services, security and ambulances.
The maximum no of staff should be available within 10 minutes of disaster notification.
The matron or senior nursing officer on duty should prepare a pre arranged ward receive causalities.
3.FORMULATION OF THE COMMAND NUCLEUS :-
The command nucleus , which includes the hospital controller , matron or senior nursing officer , and hospital administrator should be formulated immediately and it should be near the causality department.
Blood Transfusion Facts Risks Procedures Side Effects
Blood transfusion is an infusion of one person’s blood or Blood Components (Donor) to another person (Receiver) through blood Vessels i,e. who are needed Blood and Blood components,
1) To increase the oxygen carrying capacity in Anemia Conditions in suitable cases.
2) During the major surgery when much blood loss my be possible.
3) To maintain blood pressure and blood volume during hemorrhagic Condition.
4) To replace blood platelets and clotting factors in hemophilia.
5) To provide anti-bodies and leukocytes in severely ill patients.
6) Burns and Scalds,
7) Accidents and Trauma,
8) Abnormal vaginal bleeding.
Donor is a person who gives the blood.
Who can Donate Blood
Donor should be an adult between 17 to 45 years old age with 50 kg of weight at least and Hb not below 12.5 gms
Contra Indication of a Donor
Recipient is the person who receives blood.
Types of Blood Groups
Blood must be matched by testing blood groups. Blood Transfusion carried a bog risk without being tested for capability with the blood of a person receiving the blood (recipient) Each person has antibodies in to the blood, which reacts with foreign body proteins in the blood cells of another person causing agglutination or clumping of the red blood cells.
Types of Blood Groups (ABO system)
Those are 4 types
Group’A’. Has A antigen in the red cells and anti ‘B’ bodies in the plasma.
Group “B” Has B antigen in the red cells and anti “A’ Bodies in the plasma.
Group”AB” Has both A& B antigens in red cells but the plasma contains neither anti A or anti B bodies.
Group”O” Has no A or B Antigen in the red cells but has both anti “A: and anti “B” bodies in the Plasma.
Group “A” & “O” commonly found in European countries.
Rhesus Blood Group System
The Rhesus or RH Group was given this name as it was found that the same system of antibodies was present in the blood of the rhesus monkey .
These are two types:
Rhesus Positive or Rh+ve (D+ve)
Rhesus Negative or RH-ve (D-ve)
About 85% of Population is Rh+ve group and and about 15% of population os Rh –Ve group.
Transfusion of Rh +ve blood to a Rh negative individual can be dangerous,
since the Rh Negative blood cell produce antibodies to destroy the transfused cells.
The effect of a first transfusion may be effective slightly, but the individual become sensitive to
the Rhesus D factor and further transfusion with Rh positive blood may produce a serious reaction .
Transfusion of ABO Group Blood
Group”A” receive from “A” Group and “O” group
Group”B” Receive from “B” Group And “O” Group
Group “AB ‘ (Universal recipient ): Receive from “A” “B” “AB” or “O” Group
Group “O” (Universal donor ): Receive from only Group “O”
General Instructions for Blood Transfusion
Precaution for Blood Transfusion
Stop Blood if patient gets rigor.
Note: Donor’s blood must be tested for syphilis, malaria and AIDS. Before giving the blood, it must be grouped carefully to make sure that it will not cause clothing with recipient’s blood. It must matcj,
Do not warm the blood before using it as it raises the temperature of the blood and encourage the growth of bacteria.
Do not wash the bottle for several hours after blood has been given, in case it is necessary to recheck blood type.
If any complications of Blood Transfusion
Stop Blood Transfusion,
Replace IV Set (IV Tubing),
Inform Blood Bank,
Risks and Complications of Blood transfusion
1) Raised Pulse.
2) Difficult Breathing.
5) Cardiac and respiratory distress.
All the above signs should be carefully watched for and reported immediately.
6) Renal Failure
7) Pyrenial reaction
11) Air embolism
Bed Making Nursing Procedure Types of Beds Purposes and Principles General Instructions for Patient & Staff Nurses Need to be Learn different types of Beds for specific needs and purposes of clients i.e unoccupied bed, Occupied bed,
Critical Care Bed,
Prevent cross infection and multiplication of microorganism during Bed Making,
Procedure application of strict aseptic Technique,
Hand wash before and after procedure
Change linen frequently to ensure cleanliness,
Damp dusting recommended for cleaning with soap water, disinfectant solution,
Comfortable, Clean and Safe Bed Making will ensure rest and promote sleep and also prevent complications of prolonged bed ridden patient, i.e, Pressure sore, foot drop,
Make bed wrinkle free and smooth,
Maintain good body alignment and body mechanics to prevent fatigue,
Follow systemic ways of functioning saves energy and times,
Do not mix clean and soiled clothes,
Maintain good body mechanics,
Protect economy of time, Material and energy,
Make the bed firm smooth and unwrinkled
Practice economy of time, energy and material
Arrange the bed clothes in such a way that they allow freedom in the day time but come over the shoulders at night and the top linen loose over the feet.
The mattress must be turned aired and made free of lumps and creases.
Make adaptations according to weather climatic differences,
Individual needs customs and habits of our clients.
Always get extra help to make a bed for helpless patients and prevent them from falling. i.e., the side rails may be used to prevent them falling,
Keep a reasonable distance from the face of the patient to prevent cross infection.
Check the cot, mattress and pillows daily for the presence of vermin’s and destroy them if found on the bed.
The nursing principles such as individually, comfort, safety and good workman ship should be kept in mind during the bed making.
Unoccupied bed making is done the bed is empty (Patient not at bed), Unoccupied bed is the easiest Bed Making procedure,
– To make a bed which comfortable and safe for the patient, neat, economical in time and effort.
Check the doctor’s order for specific precautions regarding the movement and positioning of the patient.
Assess the patient ability for self care.
Check the furniture and linen available in the patient’s unit.
Assess the number of clean linen needed.
Assess the articles needed for comfort of the patient. E.g. blankets back rest et
Preparation of the articles
The usual articles and supplies in the patient’s unit are:
Mattress and pillows
Chair or stool
Bed side locker.
Articles needed for the complete hange of linen are:
Detergent powder in a container.
– Basin with water and a duster.
– 2 sheets
– Draw sheet and mackintosh
– Blanket if necessary
– Counter pane and pillow, pillow case
– Kidney tray, paper bag
Unoccupied Bed Making Procedure:
(a) Place stool or chair at foot end of the bed and the locker at 45o angle the bed.
(b) Untuck the bed linen from all sides and place pillow on the stool or chair.
(c) Fold the linen from the head end to the foot end.
(d) Fold the counter pane, blanket and top sheet in quarter and place them in stool or chair one by one with the open ends away from the ward entrance.
(e) Fold the draw sheet and dust the mackintosh fold and put them on stool (or) chair.
(f) Fold the bottom sheet and put it on the stool.
(g) Dust the mattress and cot.
(h) Repeat the steps from 5 to 10.
For admission bed:
a) Fan fold the top linen at the foot end of the bed.
b) Use long bed mackintosh and two sheets.
For fracture bed:
Use fracture bed or wooden boards and firm mattress